Within the context of this time period, which overlaps the later years of the Victorian era and the start of WWI, Edward, as crown prince and later as king, was known as the leader of a fashionable elite that set the style of the english speaking world. Below are some pictures which should give you a sense of the style from that era.
As you can see from the pictures, there is a whimsical yet formal sense to how these people in the middle and upper classes saw themselves. The television series Downtown Abbey, provides a fictional version of that time period, but the show does give us an authentic feel for the era.
The jewelry from that era, of course, reflects the style and thinking of the time. Jewelry, as an art form, will always reflect or in many cases predict the sense of an era. This era in jewelry design and fabrication sees the first use of platinum as a popular metal for jewelry. Platinum, a much stronger metal than gold, allowed the jewelry designer to create more delicate and intricately designed pieces. Additionally, the diamond mines in South Africa were in full production which stimulated the extravagant use of diamonds in jewelry design.